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Demes Regassa




JUNE, 2014

Addis Ababa

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Demes Regassa

A thesis submitted to the school of graduate studies of Addis Ababa

University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters

of Educational planning and management

June, 2014

Addis Ababa

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Addis Ababa University

School of Graduate Studies College of Education and Behavioral studies

Department of Educational planning and Management

Practices and challenges in implementing Co- curricular Activities in

Addis Ababa Preparatory Schools.


Demes Regassa

Approved by Bored of Examination External Examiner___________________ Signature____________ Date____________

Internal Examiner____________________ Signature___________ Date____________

Advisor_______________________________ Signature___________ Date____________

Chairperson, ________________________ Signature____________ Date____________

Head of the Graduate committee

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First of all, I would like to express my heartfelt appreciation and gratitude to my advisor

Dr.Teshom Tola for his constructive advice and unreserved support during the whole process of

the study. Secondly I would like to thank Addis Ababa University for giving me the opportunity

to study and financial support for the research. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to all

instructors and administrative staff in the Institute of Education for their unreserved support.

I am thankful for all Research participants who gave me their unreserved time and support

during the data collection process. Finally I would also like to thank my family and friends for

their assistance and encouragement throughout my study period. First of all, I would like to

thank Addis Ababa University for giving me the opportunity to study.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgement ………………………………………………………………………… i

Table of content……………………………………………………………………………… ii

Acronyms……………………………………………………………………………………… iv

List of tables………………………………………………………………………………….. v

Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………………

Chapter one

1. Introduction ............................................................................................ 10

1.1. Back Ground of the study..................................................................... 10

1.2. Statement of the problem ..................................................................... 12

1.3. Objectives............................................................................................. 17

1.4. Research Questions .............................................................................. 17

1.5. Significance of the study ....................................................................... 18

1.6. Delimitation of the Study ...................................................................... 18

1.7. Limitation of the study……………………………………………………………….10

1.8.Operational Definitions of Terms ............................................................. 20

1.9. Organization of the study……………………………………………………………11

Chapter two

2. Review of Related Literature .................................................................... 21

2.1. Definition of Education ......................................................................... 21

2.2. Definition of Curriculum and Co- curriculum ....................................... 21

2.3. Concepts of co-curricular activities ....................................................... 24

2.4. Types of Co-curricular Activities ........................................................... 27

2.5. Objectives and benefits of co-curricular activities……………………………..19

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2.6. The value of Co – curricular Activities ................................................... 30

2.7. Participation in Co-curricular Activities ................................................ 31

2.8. Limiting factors of the implementation of CCAs..................................... 32

Chapter three

3. Research Design and Methodology........................................................... 33

3.1.Research Design ..................................................................................... 33

3.2.Sources of Data ....................................................................................... 34

3.3. Sampling procedure and Sampling Techniques....................................... 34

3.4.Instrument .............................................................................................. 36

3.5.Pilot study ............................................................................................... 37

3.6.Data Gathering procedure ....................................................................... 38

3.7.Techniques of Data Analysis ................................................................... 39

Chapter 4

4. Presentation, Analysis and interpretation ................................................ 40

4.1. Profile of Respondents .......................................................................... 40

4.2. Status Existing practice of co- curricular Activities ............................... 42

4.3. Major factors negatively affect the implementation of CCAs………………..49

Chapter 5

5. Summary, conclusions and recommendations ......................................... 63

5.1. Summary ............................................................................................. 63

5.2. Conclusions ......................................................................................... 65

5.3. Recommendations ................................................................................ 66

References .................................................................................................... 68


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AAEB - Addis Ababa Education Bureau

CCAs-co-curricular activities

ESDP-Educational sector development program

ETP-Education and Training policy

GOs-Governmental organizations

MOE-Ministry of education

NGOs-Non-governmental organizations

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List of Tables


Table 1: sample schools and target population-------------------------------------26

Table 2: Samples of student by grade level------------------------------------------26

Table 3: Distribution of student and teachers --------------------------------------31

Table 4: Awareness level on co-curricular activities -------------------------------33

Table 5: perception on the benefits of co-curricular activities-------------------34

Table 6: participation level in co-curricular activity-------------------------------35

Table 7: Students, participation by sex and grade level --------------------------36

Table 8: Time spent in co-curricular activities -------------------------------------37

Table- 9: opportunities to lead club or non club co-curricular activities ------ 38

Table -10: students Participation in multiple clubs ------------------------------ 39

Table -11: clubs benefits and activates in the school ----------------------------- 41

Table -12: teachers‟ and principals opinion on organizing

co-curricular activates ---------------------------------------------------- 43

Table- 13: opinions on the current practices of co-curricular activates-------- 45

Table –14: Student, teacher, and principals‟ response in the

Involvement of student and teachers-------------------------------------46

Table-15 Training opportunity on co-curricular activates-------------------------48

Table 16 Major factors that affect the implementation

of co-curricular activates--------------------------------------------------- 50

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The purpose of this study is to assess the practices and challenges in

implementing co-curricular activities (CCAs) in Addis Ababa preparatory schools.

To that end, descriptive survey method is employed, in which both qualitative

and quantitative techniques were applied. In the study 3 sample groups

encompassing, 355 students, 140 teachers and 11 principals participated.

Questionnaire, interview and checklists were instruments used to collect data.

After data were collected, analysis was made qualitatively and quantitatively.

Hence, the results suggested that majority of participants had good awareness

on the CCAs. Moreover the Analyses confirmed that grade level and sex

significantly affected the participation of students in CCAs. Additionally; it was

found that the CCAs were not properly organized in the schools. However, 21

types of Clubs and 10 non- club activities were found in the schools (of these

only 8 clubs were commonly found in the schools). Regarding factors that

negatively affect the practical implementation of CCAs, the major were: lack of

budget and material, low motivation of teachers, absence of facilities, low

interest of students, extra-work of students in home, absence of supportive

material for teachers and work load of teachers. Hence the study concludes that

the implementation of CCAs was not good. The study suggests: trainings for

teachers and principals, use of incentives to motivate teachers, systematically

organize CCAs to attract the interest of the students, using income generating

scheme to reduce constraints of budget. Finally in order to create competitive

atmosphere among implementers the establishment of effective continuous

monitoring and evaluation mechanism need to be established.

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Chapter one

1. Introduction

This section of the paper deals with back ground of the study, statement of the

problem, objective of the study, research questions, and significance of the

study, delimitation of the study, limitation of the study and operational

definition of related terms were presented.

1.1. Back Ground of the study

Education occupies a position of high priority to accelerate political, social,

economical and cultural progress of a nation, According to Harrison (1968:1)

the speed and facilities of which any society progress towards solution of

political, social and economic problems is directly and positively related to the

quality and quantity of education available to the people. Indeed, the survival

of a nation perhaps the whole world may depend effectiveness of the

educational enterprise of a given nation.

Education plays a vital role for the improvement of children‟s behavior. The

process of education is not something static and stagnant. Instead, it is a

continuous and lifelong endeavor and it has two parts, curricular and co-

curricular /extracurricular activities.

The concerns of great philosophers like Plato, Aristotle and John Dewey

indicated that the historical development of CCA, begins with the emergence of

formal Education (sadhu, n.d:l).For Example one of the known philosophers

Plato believed that children are born with a great many ideas that remain

dormant until stimulated by experience (theory of innate) (sadhu, n.d:2)

similarly, John Dewey, as cited in Derebssa, (2004.38.34) regarded education

as social process he stated “education has two sides: psychological and social

side, neither can be neglected or subordinated to the other without evil results

follow.” He was one of the famous advocators of Learning by Doing. Hence; the

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educational development of the child must be studied in terms of individual

needs and interests. It was the major method of instruction for most of the 20th

century in elementary schools of most of the United States and most of

European countries (Ibid). Today, the program becomes more systematic and

used in different countries starting from primary schools; however, the

perception and the emphasis given to the CCAs may be different from country

to country. As a result, curricular program, co-curricular and extracurricular

activities are practiced .Both co-curricular and extracurricular activities, being

non-credit activity, no distinction are made between co-and extra-curricular

activities. In this regard S.K kochhar (1993: 285) which is cited in published

research paper of co-curricular and extracurricular activities in Nepal, gives

strong, view to these words, the distinction between curricular and

extracurricular activities must cease to exist. Co-curricular and

Extracurricular activities are very much interwoven, there is no difference

between them, and it is essential to develop better educational plans and

programs .It helps to utilize money and resources more fruitfully for the better

development of children mentally and intellectually. In most schools, it has a

plan and budget to utilize but it needs follow –up and feedback to make it more

effective. In American education system the activities experienced outside the

classroom are classified as co-curricular and extra-curricular activities ,hence,

in this way CCAs, refer to the activities related to formal classroom program

but delivered outside the normal school day and participation is on voluntary

basses while Extra –curricular activities for them requires the activities that

fall outside the formal curriculum . However, the privilege of the students to

participate in both programs is the same (Wikipedia: 2007)

Minnesota High schools educate students to reach their full potential by

participating in co-curricular activities .It helps to develop students „ academic

and fine arts to improve skills without credit towards graduation. Even schools

make reasonable accommodation for students with disabilities to participate in

co-curricular programs (Balkh, kathmand 2004)

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In education system of Singapore, the terms co-curricular activity is more

accepted and frequently used to indicate activities organized outside the

classroom that has supplementary or complementary roles to the curricular

program (ministry of Education, Singapore, 2011).

In Ethiopia the activities that have been taken as CCAs in modern education

were deep rooted in traditional education of the Orthodox Church. Typical

examples were painting, Handcraft, Book binding (diagnose), Agriculture etc

(Rodney B, and Bridge D) (2005) were the common activities practiced before

1974 in modern education. Seitotaw (1998) as cited in Messynh Esh*tu(2008)

reports some Common activities practiced in modern education in Ethiopia

included: sports games ,school bands ,film shows, meteorological observations,

student council, field related clubs like geography and history ,art and drama,

Agriculture etc. Regarding the term, the guideline prepared for the

implementation of CCAs indicated that the term CCAs is preferable. (MOE,

1997: 3) Thus the above evidences showed that different Countries Classified

activities outside the Classroom in different ways, but they considered as an

important part of the total educational program effectiveness.

1.2. Statement of the problem

There are more than enough evidences that showed the strong desire to have

CCAS in the past and present Ethiopian education system, for example ,the

Guidelines of schools General administration prepared by the Ministry of

Education and Fine Arts (1966 Article12) ,as cited by (Setotaw ,1998:34)

“students have to be encouraged to participate in the school clubs” The

guidelines prepared by the Ministry of Education (MOE) for Internal School

Administration also indicated, how CCAS were organized and coordinated in the

School (MOE,1981,1982) Later after six years ,updated guide line of Internal

school Administration issued by MOE showed the structure and job description

of CCAs Committee (MOE, 1988). Currently available documents showed that

co-curricular activities (CCAs) are being implemented in different countries

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including Ethiopia. Ministry of Education, Singapore described CCAs are an

integral part of students‟ holistic, well-rounded education. It helps nurture in

students‟ qualities such as resilience, tenacity, confidence and perseverance,

which prepare them to adapt and thrive in a rapidly changing world (Ministry

of Education Singapore, 2011).

According to Setotaw (1998) in Ethiopia Education system after the

establishment of regional education bureau, the Co-Curricula program was

coordinated by physical Education and Co- curricular program section at MOE

level while at Regional, Zonal and Woreda Levels the responsibilities were given

to the Examination and Student service section. Similarly, at the School Level

the responsibility was given to the Co-Curricular Coordinating Committee.

On the other side, there were critics that indicated the reverse situation with

that of Setotaw‟s findings. The critics indicated that there are no responsible

skilled personnel and structural position for CCAS at Wereda, Zonal, Regional

Educational Bureau and MOE Levels .Moreover, there were strong critics that

indicated, about the formation of CCAs. Even though, Schools often organized

different CCAS at the start of annual schooling time most of them are unable to

function properly and become unsuccessful.

The statement in the ESDP II document also clearly stressed that the capacity

level of Lower Level management was one of the main problems to realize

educational goals.”Inadequate statics planning and management capacity at

the lower levels of the organization structures (e.g. woreda) is a critical problem

in realizing the goals of education, especially with regard to primary education”

(ESDPII 2005)

However, there are Limited research works that may show the existing

practices of CCAs particularly at Secondary and Preparatory Schools (11 and

12 grades).

For instance, unpublished MA theses of Ayele Eshete, (2007),Dejene Tefera

(2006) and Mesayneh Eshetu (2008) and Setotaw, (1998) indicated that the

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status of co-curricular Activities were not good and the participation of

students and teachers also very low.

In a survey study on the status of CCAs in the Ethiopian schools that

conducted by Setotaw in 1998 emphasized that the status of CCAs was under

a series condition. Similarly, the findings of unpublished MA theses of Ayele

Esthete (2007) under the topic” The practices of extracurricular Activities in

higher education” and Mesayneh Eshete (2008) “The implementation of Co-

Curricular activities in second Cycle primary Schools confirmed that the

participation of students and the status of CCAs was not in good manner..

The research works of Dejene Tefera and Ayele Esthete were specific to the

participation Level of students with special needs and students of higher

education, Mesayneh Eshete‟s research was also specific in the

implementation of Co- Curricular activity on primary school second cycle

respectively. The findings may indicate the participation Levels of the students

and the implementation activity and challenges in CCAS at higher education

and second Cycle primary schools.

None of the above researchers examined the actual situations in secondary

school second cycle particularly in preparatory schools because the existing

practices and challenges to implement CCAS were not properly quantified by

the above mentioned research works.

A number of literatures also confirmed that complexity of the implementation

of co-curricular program in the ground because it requires the involvement of

various bodies, more time and high commitment of coordinator as well as

administrators. For Example, some researchers stated the practice of CCAs is

difficult from the academic teaching/ learning process because it needs more

time. There are also different factors that affect the practice of CCAs like the

absence of trained and motivated teachers, the absence of continuous

monitoring, the recklessness of students to participate in this activity, and the

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shortage of finance (no allocation of budget); lack of equipment, etc and

sometimes students feel that these activities interfere with their studies.

Therefore, whenever CCAs are organized, students participate in these

activities unwilling. (Daniel Nesan, 2009).

So this study is designed to search the practice of CCAs in preparatory schools.

The organization of these activities is equally important and every effort should

be made to introduce and practice CCAs as important as academic classes. In

most foreign country schools, to facilitate co- curricular activities (CCAs), it has

a plan, allocated budget and, follow-up and feedback. In Ethiopia, one of the

objectives of ETP, non formal education helps to promote the appropriate

education to develop aesthetics. CCAs helps to develop and improve students‟

ability, raise their creativity and interest. Despite these facts, there are factors

that affecting the effective practice of CCAs:

• The absence of trained and motivated teachers

• The absence of continuous monitoring and evaluation

• Students are careless to participate in this activity

• Lack of willingness.

The above mentioned ideas stated in conducting research that focused on

factors that affect the effective practice of CCAs in Government preparatory

schools and to steer clear of the affecting factors in effective practicing of CCAs.

Through this study the existing practice of CCAs in preparatory Schools is

assessed and tried to find out the financial status or budget allocation,

material support and giving practical training for teachers and students in

conducting CCAs in Government preparatory schools. Besides the study is

designed to search how the preparatory School students can participating in

school clubs

Hence to assess the implementation status of CCAs, it needs attention to

consider human, material and structural factors. As the study of Rahel Gebre

Tadik(2012) finding, indicates shortage of materials, participation of the

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teacher and students are very low and there is a plan for supportive

supervision but the school administrators do not give priority as they do with

other urgent tasks..

Karlin and Berger (1971) stressed on the process of coordination by describing

the prerequisite to be considered before organizing co-curricular activities,

accordingly; identifying the interest of students the effectiveness of the

assigned sponsor, the availability of resource and environment that encourages

voluntary activity are the prerequisites to effective implementation of the Co-

curricular program.

Chamberlain and kindred (1966) emphasizing that success or failure of the co-

curricular program depends most upon the quality of leadership provided by

faculty members. Neville (1997) stated educational aim that emanated from the

educational policy serves to determine what should be taught in the school and

how school life should be organized .There may be weaknesses to materialize

the written documents and policy intentions in the ground due to different


In general, the CCAs program is expected to be implemented in line with

classroom curricular program starting from the primary school.

From the above point of view, conducting research that focused on the

implementation of CCAs in second cycle Secondary schools is very essential.

Hence; the study is designed to fill the gap through assessing the existing

practices of CCAs in secondary and preparatory school context, in Addis Ababa

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1.3. Objectives

1.3.1. General objective

The general objective of this study is to examine the implementation practices

of CCAs and identify its major problems or challenges in preparatory schools.

To meet the above-mentioned objective, the following specific objectives were

included in this study:

1.3.2. Specific objectives

� To find out the existing practices of the program and physical facilities for

Co-curricular activities in preparatory Schools.

� To find out the financial status for conducting the Co-curricular r activities

� To find out the training level of teachers involved in Co curricular activities.

� To find out the role of teachers and School principals in promoting Co-

curricular activities in preparatory School.

� To identify the perception of the students and teachers towards the benefit of

Co-curricular activities.

� To identify the problems of preparatory School in carrying out Co-curricular


To identify barrier that affect students and teachers to practice CCAs

1.4. Research Questions

1. How do the current status and practices of co-curricular activities look like

in preparatory schools?

2. Is the financial status (budget) of CCAs enough?

3. Is the training level of teachers involved in CCAs competitive?

4. What is the perception of students and teachers in CCAs?

5. What are the major factors and challenges affecting the implementation of

co-curricular activities in preparatory schools?

6. What are barriers that affect students and teachers to practice CCAs?

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1.5. Significance of the study

The result of this study may not be exhaustive to provide solution for the

problems. However; it is significant for the following reasons:

Educational and Cultural policy of Ethiopia support the implementation

of CCAs in schools.

It helps to know/see what strategies should be employed to attain the

effective practice of CCAs. Besides, it gives clues about how problems are

solved concerning the effective practice of CCAs in secondary schools

It will enable educational expertise to recognize the actual practices and

challenges of implementing CCAs, so that possible interventions that

alleviate the situation can be taken.

It provides basic information for further studies

To alleviate the working conditions of CCAs in preparatory schools

1.6. Delimitation of the Study

The study is delimited to some preparatory schools of Addis Ababa.more

specifically to assess the implementation practices of ccas and its challeng was

carried out by considering clubs and non clubs factors.

Administration structure of Addis Ababa is City Government at the top,

10 Sub City Administrations in the Middle and 116 weredas Administrations at

the bottom. There are about 52 Government, 71 private, 13 Local community

schools, 1 foreign community,11 church, 10 Mission, 1 Mosque, and 9 others

Secondary Schools in Addis Ababa. These schools are distributed throughout

the ten sub-cities. 101,288 students enrolled in Government,11,343 in local

community, 23,079 in Private, and 51,283 in non government (Foreign

community, church, mission, mosque, and others) Secondary Schools (AAEB,

2013/14). The researcher selected five Government Secondary and preparatory

Schools for the reason that the majority of students are there. Administratively,

Government Secondary and preparatory schools are governed by sub-city

education offices. The study area was conducted randomly selected sub-cities,

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lideta.Yeka, Arada, and Gulala. In these sub cities, there are five preparatory

schools and five of them are randomly selected. Balcha Abba Nefso, Yekatit 12,

Hidase Lideta, Kokebe Tsibah and Menelike II Preparatory Schools are selected

using simple random sampling. The study was carried out from February 2,

2014 G.C to April 4, 2014 G.C.

The delimitation is also made to the implementation status and challenges

of CCAs by taking its students, teachers and principals related factors as a

frame of reference because the research will not be manageable if all factors

and all the schools will be included.

1.7. Limitation of the study

The study is intended to examine the implementation practices of CCAs in

preparatory schools. The researcher used selected preparatory schools of Addis

Ababa. It would have been better if all schools were studied but in this study

nongovernmental schools were not included because of time and budget

constraint and the coverage of population in the government schools. There is a

limitation because of Limited research works to see the consistency of the

present findings and Lack of up-to-date reference materials were also another

limitation of the study that forced the researcher to refer at old materials. The

study was intended to collect information from schools but there was a

problem of getting grade 12 studentes because in conducting time they are not

in the schools properly. Hence the situation forced the researcher to take more

students from grade 11.however, more time and unreserved efforts were made

to collect, interpret the data and report the findings objective.

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1.8. Operational Definitions of Terms

Awareness-the state or level of consciousness, knowledge where sense can be

confirmed by observer or aware of something

Challenge –A difficulty, especially one that make confront the action

Co – curricular Activity - being outside of but usually complementing the

regular curriculum a program or out of class activity, supervised and/or

financed by the School, this provides Curriculum-related and different

character building experiences (The Free Dictionary, 2012).

Curriculum – the courses offered by an educational institution, a set of

courses constituting anarea of specialization (The Free Dictionary, 2012).

Practice –Actual performance or habit for skill sake constant exercise or


Second Cycle Secondary School:-educational structure consists of grade 11

And 12

Training-it is a planned process of learning the necessary knowledge, skills and

attitudes, which enable an individual performance a certain activity effectively

and efficiently.

1.9. Organization of the study

The study consists of five chapters, chapter one deals with introduction,

background of the study, statement of the problem, objective, research

questions, significant, delimitation, limitation and operational definition of

terms of the study. The second chapter is concerned with the review of related

literature relevant to the problem under investigation. The third chapter

consists of the research methodology and procedure of the data collection and

analysis. The fourth chapter deals with the presentation, analysis and

interpretation of the data. Lastly chapter five comprises the summary,

conclusion and recommendations were presented.

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Chapter two

2. Review of Related Literature

In order to make theoretical context to the study, review of related literature

has been made the reviews based on the theoretical concepts and available

research works on co-curricular activities will be seen.

2.1. Definition of Education

Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims

and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. It

occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one

thinks, feels, or acts. In its narrow, technical sense, education is the formal

process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge,

skills, customs and values from one generation to another, for example,

instruction in schools (Deering High School Student Handbook 2005 – 2006).

Aggarwal (1990) stated students get one- fourth of their education from their

environment such as their teachers and others from their fellow students and

the rest in the course of time through their life experience, on the other side,

G.S Millar, as cited in Aggarwal (1990), argued that education is a conscious

and deliberate process well planned to modify the behavior of the students in

desirable and socially approved channels and to bring about in the students

specific knowledge and skills.

2.2. Definition of Curriculum and Co- curriculum

As described above, the aim of education is to help children to achieve all

round development. Therefore, curriculum experts and educational

administrators have to give attention for the co curricular activities (CCA s)

need to be available in schools. It is important for the development of students

and cannot be seen separately from the curriculum Kochhar (1993:286), as

cited in (Balkhu, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2004:2).

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2.2.1. Curriculum

Deferent oaters define the term curriculum defiantly. According to (Daniel

Nesan,2009:178) the term curriculum refers to the program of study in various

academic subjects like Mathematics, English, History, Science etc that followed

by students at various levels of education. The school teaching staffs are

employed to teach this curriculum, and students are periodically assessed by

exams and term papers in their progress in each curriculum subject. As they

grow older, students‟ achievements in their curriculum subjects are seen as

important in helping them get into a good university or college, and to find a

good job when they leave education. The academic curriculum has never been

all that schools offer to their students. A range of other classes, clubs and

activities is available to students, sometimes in lessons but more often in the

lunch break or after school. These are referred to as the co-curriculum, or as

extra-curricular activities, and they are mostly voluntary for students (Daniel

Nesan, 2009).

2.2.2. Co – curricular/Extracurricular Activities

Co-curricular activity is defined as a program or out-of-class activity,

supervised and/or financed by the school, which provides curriculum-related

learning and character building experiences. Co-curricular activities are

voluntary, are not part of the regular school curriculum, are not graded and do

not earn credits. It is the intent of the School Committee by this policy to

encourage academic effort and achievement by the students of all academic

Schools. Co-curricular requirements are designed to supplement students'

formal coursework, promoting the consolidation and application of knowledge

and skills addressed in program curricula and readings through specified

activities in vocation-oriented settings (Jha et al 2004).

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As Kochhar cited in (Jha et al 2004: 221) thus, Co-curricular activities have

one or more of the following characteristics:

They are conducted at regular and uniform times during school hours or at

other times established by the school administration.

Although not offered for credit, they are directed or supervised by

instructional staff in the learning environment similar to that found in

courses offered to credit.

They are partially funded by public money for general instructional

purposes under the direction and control of the school Board. Extra-

curricular, on the other hand, has been defined as, “Extra-curricular

activities are small activities sponsored by students' clubs or groups and

approved by the administration”. Extracurricular activities are direct and

personal services for school students for their enjoyment that are managed

and operated under the guidance of an adult or staff member. Thus, Extra-

curricular activities have all of the following characteristics:

They are not offered for school credit or required for graduation.

They are generally conducted out-side school hours, or if partly during

school hours, and at times, agreed by the participants and approved by

school administration.

The content of the activities is determined primarily by the student

participation under the guidance of a stage-member or other adult.

Morgan Hill as cited in Jha et al (2004: 12) has also given almost

similar definition of co curricular and extracurricular activities. Co-

curricular activities extend learning experiences and they are directly

related to academic courses in curricular subjects and activities, whereas

extracurricular activities are not part and parcel of curriculum and they are

not carried out during school hours. The participants in the extra-curricular

activities are guided by a staff member or any other adult with knowledge

and experiences. Both co-curricular and extra-curricular activities are non

credit activities. However, both of them need approval by school authorities.

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However, according to Rocco Marano, the director of NASSP's Student

Activities, as cited in Edward J. Klesse and Jan a. D‟Onofrio, student activities

are not extra; it should be regarded more than “extra.” Extra implies something

not necessary and suggests that student activities are just fun and games,

which makes it easy for them to be dismissed or removed. There are numerous

studies that show that students who participate in student activities usually

have better grades, better attendance, and are more successful in later life than

students who don't participate. Certainly, student activities should be

enjoyable, but there are also valuable skills and lessons that can be taught to

those who participate, such as goal setting, communication, organization,

decision making, teamwork, conflict resolution, and tolerance. These are

sometimes thought of as leadership skills, but they are really life skills that can

be practiced as part of a club or organization and complement what is taught

in the classroom. In general, as described in the beginning, the purpose of

education is to train students not to know about things (in cognitive) but to

behave or practice it in the right way (skills). Therefore mostly, cognitive

development is taken care by curriculum and the skill development is

implemented by the outside class room teaching (MOE, 1994). By practicing it

most students develop their talents with knowledge and experiences. It has

practiced in academic schools in after school program.

2.3. Concepts of co-curricular activities

Before looking the importance and need of Co- Curricular Activities, let us be

clear about the concept of Co-Curricular Activities.

Four decades ago it was comparatively easy to define Co-Curricular Activities,

because all of them were organized and promoted largely by students

themselves, with relatively little assistance from teachers and administrators

.Equipments were Major, little official recognition was given and no credit was

allowed for participation .These activities were really Extracurricular.

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Today it is difficult to define Co-Curricular Activities because all teachers have

some definite responsibilities for their organizations. Many full time

professional teachers are employed, classrooms, time, equipment and materials

are provided, their relations with regular curricular activities are regarded as

vital, credit for participation is allowed and recognition is also given.

In short, we can say that, according to modern education thinkers, curriculum

is not only teaching and learning in classroom, it also includes work in

;Library, Laboratory and workshop, participation in games and sports in

playground and numerous informal contacts between teachers and pupils in

these places . In these informal contacts there are many activities which are

taken place one of which is Co-Curricular Activities .It is a part of curriculum

of the institution, school organization and management Edict BlogSpot Co-/--


As described above curriculum experts and educational administrators have to

give attention for the CCAs need to be available in the schools, it is important

for the development of pupil and cannot be seen separately from the


Kochhar (1993:286), as cited in (Jha et al, 2004; 2) stated “we conceive of the

school curriculum as the totality of Learning experiences that the school

provides for the pupils through all the manifold activities, in the school or

outside that are Covered under its supervision”

Similarly, Module prepared by national academy of higher education of

Pakistan described “curriculums all the activities which are provided inside or

outside the institution for achieving the predetermined goals” (Iqbaletal,


Hence, curriculum included not only curricular activities but also other

Curriculum activities (CCAs) that help children to develop mentally spiritually

socially and physically, so, understanding the interwoven relationships.

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Chamberlain and kindred (1966) and(MOE(1997) show different terms that

used to describe the same thing .According to them Currently due to an

increasing acceptance of the wide function of school and brood definition of

Curriculum the term Co-curricular activities become more useful rather than

using terms like” extracurricular activities” “semi-curricular” “student

activities” and “school activity” because of having undermining implication on

the program. Minehira and Marlaw (n.d) indicated clearly Co-Curricular activity

is one of the five concepts of Curriculum .These are:-

1. The official Curriculum, which is document

2. The operational Curriculum, which is implemented in class room.

3. The hidden Curriculum, both social and academic expectation and

unwritten norms in schools

4. The Null Curriculum which consists of subjects that are consciously omitted

from the school‟s official and or operational Curriculum.

5. The Co-curricular Activities , which include all of the experiences engaged

in, by students and teachers , before, during and after the regular school

hour /day/

“Co-curricular activities are activities sponsored by the district and

approved by the school board and are designed to provide opportunities

for students to participate, on an individual or group basis in school and

public events for the improvement of skills.” Jan et al (2004:12)

Hence co-curricular and extra- curricular activities are noncredit activities and

need approval by school administrators, but the main difference is the

supervisory procedure given to the activities (Ibid).

Generally, as the purpose of education is that students shall be trained not

only to know the right thing (cognitively) but also to behave in the right way

(skill) .Thus, cognitive development is mostly taken care by the curricular

activities and the skill development is taken care mostly by the actual activities

outside the normal class room teaching (MOE,1997)

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2.4. Types of Co-curricular Activities

As fair Relationship or distinction between co- curricular activities and

curriculum helps us to develop better educational plan, understanding the

types of Co-curricular activities also help us to utilize resources more fruitfully

and make easy to organize desirable activities in schools. According to MOE

(1997:35) based on their organizational nature CCAs can be categorized in to

two; clubs and Non-clubs.

2.4.1. Clubs

Clubs are activities organized in the form of association; usually have leader,

executive committee, members, rule and regulation and iterance fee. Clubs also

have different varieties such as:

- Clubs related to class room subject e.g. .History, Geography, Language


- Clubs related to self governance e.g. Boy Scout, girls club etc.

- Service clubs e.g. library, postal service ,Red Cross, mini-media etc

- Talent and career related clubs e.g. tomorrows teacher, journalist,

theater etc.(MOE,1997:35)

2.4.2. Non-clubs

Non-clubs activities are activities organized permanently or temporarily and

have no similarity in organization with club, such activities are:

- Holy days

- Class monitor

- Flag ceremony

- Social activities etc.

On the other side the co-curricular activity resource book for teachers of Nepal

classified the activities in to compulsory, desirable and optional group in the

following manner (Ibid, 1997)

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- Compulsory activities: National flag, National anthem, prayer, cleaning

of compound, field and class room, personal hygiene, minor games and

observing education day.

- Desirable activities : school uniform parent day National song, drawing

and handicrafts

- Optional activities: Educational tour, school flag, school anniversary,

National festival, garden, National symbols and photos of National

personalities(Jha et al,2004)

Singapore Secondary schools typically divide CCAs into Core CCAs and Merit


Core CCAs, which typically include the Sports, Performing Arts Groups and

Uniformed Groups, tend to take up more time and resources and have more

emphasis placed on them by the School. Membership in at least one Core CCA

is compulsory for secondary school students in Singapore and it is considered

an integral part of the education system.

Merit CCAs, which typically include the Clubs and Societies, are usually less

time-consuming. Academic clubs however may consume as much time as, if

not more than, Core CCAs. Merit

CCAs serve as an optional pursuit for students with an interest in what the

CCA has to offer (MOE, Singapore, 2011).

2.5. Objectives and Benefits of CO-curricular Activities

The benefits of Co-Curricular activities are not Limited to pupils, teachers can

also gain a lot for example teachers who are shy ,sensitive and whose talents

are not expressed very much enriched psychologically be discovering his /her

talent because he/she can get more exposure to break shyness .The informal

situation set up in CCAS provide opportunity for the teachers and students to

work together in friendly relationship this foster the teachers to work more

effectively even in a class room(karlin and Berger, 1971)

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Co- curricular activities give a chance to involve students in school and

community affair .This often helps to create or improve effective

communication between school and societies. Through these students develop

further sensitivities to social needs and problems, and acquire a deeper sense

of civic responsibility. Moreover, schools that communicate with their external

publics in some organized way enhance their chances of getting better public

supports, minimizing criticism, Learning the values and priorities of the

community, and receiving many functional ideas that will help them Educate

students better (Gallagher, 2001).

Therefore, if it is well planned, communities can also gain direct benefit from

CCAs, for instance, through Voluntary services like: Literacy Campaign, anti

AIDS movement, tree plantation etc, not only the Local people but also the

country as whole can benefit from CCAS.

In this regard , setotaw (1998:175) stated “there are no better opportunities

other than Co-curricular program that established close contact between

school and community “ Through activities like parent day ,sport Competitions,

exhibition and dramas etc school can easily catch the attention of Local people

for the betterment of school image

However, Gallagher (2001) stressed on some precautions, according to him

activities undergoing by pupils to public benefit should be a logical to fit with

its educational objectives .He said “Unless this principle is respected, there is

always a danger of exploiting pupils for publicity purpose. In general, the

school has amoral obligation to see that pupils maintain a desirable balance

between participation in school /Community affair and educational progress.

Co-curricular activities also used to accommodate issues like HIV/AIDS,

environmental protection, place education, and inter cultural education and

important recent innovation and contents that are not included in the text

(ESDP III, 2005, EDUV: NET, 1997)

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2.6. The value of Co – curricular Activities

CCAs have a number of values like academics. Educational value has a great

potential, but the classroom teaching is theoretical. To get practical knowledge,

CCAs can be imparted. There are so many valuables of CCAs: development of

social spirit, Recreational values, Physical development and cultural values.

Development of social spirit has its own value. Social cooperation is recognized

as one of the important demands of citizenship. It is difficult to teach social

value through school subjects like Languages, Mathematics or Social Sciences.

By participating in group activities, students learn good manners and develop a

sense of cooperation. Membership in a club, student council, dramatic cast or

an athletic team requires co-operation. Students learn to appreciate the

relationship of an individual to the social group. Through team activities,

students learn social cooperation. They develop group spirit, 'we' feeling,

belongingness, unity and ability to be cooperative (Daniel Nesan, 2009).

Recreational value is also one valuable activity. Lack of ability and training in

proper utilization of one's leisure time is one of the major defects in the present

system of education. By providing and organizing various activities, schools

provide wholesome opportunities to students, rather than to spend their spare

time in undesirable activities. Instead hobbies can be developed at the school

age become lifelong habits. Physical development, while games, sports and

athletics directly contribute to physical development of students. These

activities provide a useful opportunity for the growth and development of the

body and it helps to develop psychological brightness too. Some CCAs like

understanding of different cultures have also tremendous values, as they help

in providing opportunities for better understanding of our cultural heritage and

traditions, activities like dramatic song and dance, folk songs , folk music,

exhibitions and celebration of various religious and social festivals provide

better knowledge and understanding of our culture. Even if CCAs are very

important for students in all academic levels, different factors are affecting it to

practice effectively.

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2.7. Participation in Co-curricular Activities

As described in the previous section of this proposal research findings

indicated that participation of students in CCAS play Central role in students

health development However, a number of factors might affect the active

participation of students.

Macomber and More (1999) reported that nationally 83 percent of all Children

ages from 6 to 17years participated in at Least one CCA, but of children in

families with Low income (under 200 percent of the poverty Level ) 73 percent

participated compared to 90 percent of Children in higher income families.

Some findings indicated that gender; grade level and socio economic status of

an individual may influence the involvement of students in CCAS similarly as

reported in Ezewu. E(2000:25-26) the research work of Obaya and Ezewu that

was conducted on 1644 pupils of twelve primary schools of two Nigeria cities

indicated that children from high socio –economic status families expressed

interest in both academic and varied activities where as children from Low

socio economic status showed interest only in academic subjects.

In a survey of 1500 student drawn from 65 randomly selected high schools

across the united states of America also indicated that half of the students

were not participating in CCAS for the reasons; Job outside the school,

irrelevance of activities, inconvenient of schedule while 40 percent of the

students indicated teacher domination, parental disapproval and unavailability

of their sex (Long, Boser and Johnson, 1977)

Moreover, the survey conducted by Morris and Starrized (1982) on phoenix

high school students showed that the main reasons for joining students in

CCAs were internal reward or interes.

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2.8. Limiting factors of the implementation of CCAs

Limiting factors are obstacles that usually challenge a given program at (jha et

al 2004) identified the following limiting factors for the implementation of CCAs

in primary school of Nepal. These were:

- Lack of budget, lack of training and trained teachers for CCAs

- Over teaching load and crowded class

- Less participation of students

- Unavailability of guiding book for CCAs

- Lack of monitoring and supervising on CCAs

- Forcible participation by teachers etc.

Setotaw (1998), of Dejene Tefera(2006) and Ayele Eshete(2007)( un published

MA theses) identified almost similar factors that hinders the implementation of

CCAs may be influenced by the presence or absence of material or budget

skilled man power and workable organization.

Minerhira and Mariow (n.d) strongly advised that to improve the

implementation of the program, principles have to find access to support in

terms of resources and professional development opportunities for the

teachers. Hawes (1982), chamberlain and kindered (1966) also emphasized

that the success or failure of the co-curricular program depends most up on

the quality of leadership provide by faculty members.

Gabries and chao (1996), and Detjen (1952) that the availability of trained

teaching staff, teacher‟s morale and professional incentive could have a power

full effect on the implementation of CCAs

According to Derebssa (2004), communication is another factor that needs to

be considered because communication is one of the important processes to

transfer information among people. It assists implementers to accomplish

intended objectives.Therefore success of implementation of CCAs may be

affected by the peoples, material and organizational factors.

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Chapter three

3. Research Design and Methodology

This chapter explains the research was carried out; it includes research design,

source of data, population, sampling procedure sample size, sampling

techniques characteristics of population, instrument, data gathering procedure

and data analysis.

3.1. Research Design

To undertake the research, mixed Research method was employed. Mixed

research methods are an approach that combines both qualitative and

quantitative. According to (Crewell, 2009), it involves philosophical

assumptions, the use of qualitative and quantitative approaches and the

mixing of both approaches in a study. In selecting a research method, one

must need to consider the difference among the three research methods, since

they differ in terms of world views, strategies and instruments to be employed

in the study.crewell,2009, identify six issues as a criteria that determine ones

method selection. Strategies, instruments of data collection, researcher

problems and experiences of the researcher etc. The advantage of mixed

research method as Creswell(2009), stated that, researchers may first survey

alrege number of individuals and then follow up with a few participants to

obtain ther specific language and voices about the topic. In these situations,

collecting both close-ended quantitative data and open ended qualitative data

proves advantageous. In terms of research design, a descriptive survey method

was employed with the intention of getting the general image of the current

status practices and challenges of CCAs Addis Ababa preparatory schools.

Descriptive survey research involves a clearly defined problem and definite

objectives (Best and Kahn;1989).Hence, it was expected that, this design could

help the researcher to obtain the nature of situation as it exists at a time of the


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3.2. Sources of Data

To achieve the objective of the study both primary and secondary source of

data were used. Students, teachers and principals were used as primary

sources of data. While Thesis, Books, Journals, Internet, and document were

used as secondary source of data.

3.3. Sampling procedure and Sampling Techniques.

According to Johnson and Christenson, (2008:51). A population is the set of all

elements to which a researcher want to generalize his/her sample results. The

target population of this study consists of all Government preparatory schools.

Beside to it sample of principals, teachers and students of Lideta ,Gulele,Arda

and yeka sub-city are also included in the study, from those sub-city 5

preparatory schools were selected randomly. The reason behind it is that all

the government preparatory schools was included in the study; Random

sampling especially simple random was used to select 30% of the teachers, and

5%of students from the sample schools. The use of simple random sampling

stems from the reason that the choice of respondents is guide by the

probability principle, according to which every unit of the target population will

have equal chance of non-zero probability being included in the study,


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TABLE-1 sample schools and target

No Schools Students Teachers principals Total

sample Total Sample total sample total sample

1. Balcha Abba Nefso


1214 61 80 24 3 3 88

2. Hidase Lideta secondary

& preparatory

855 43 56 17 2 2 62

3. Yekatit 12 preparatory 1839 92 129 39 2 2 133

4. Kokebetsibah secondary

& preparatory

1116 56 58 18 2 2 76

5. Menelik II preparatory


2460 123 138 42 3 2 167


7484 375 461 140 12 11 526

TABEL-2 Sample of student in grade level

Sample schools Grade level





Grade 11 Grade 12

Hidase lidata 43 - 43 12.1

Balcha Abanefso 31 30 61 17.1

Kokebe Tshibah 36 20 56 15.7

Yekatit 12 71 21 92 25.9

Menelik II 89 14 103 29.01

Total 270 85 355 100

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Beside the above sample population, 11 school principals were also involved in

the study through purposive sampling. Their involvement in this study was

considered because of their critical role in school CCAs and it is expected that

they would offer adequate and relevant information to the issue of the study.

Thus the participant of this study comprises teachers; principals and students

were included in the study.

3.4. Instrument

In order to obtain adequate information the researcher employed

questionnaire, Interview and observation checklists. The researcher expected

that the selected instruments were fit to the design of the study appropriately.


Questionnaire was commonly used to address the largest number of

respondents and helps the respondents to express their ideas freely and easily

with less time .Therefore in this study both open ended and closed ended items

were used. The student questioners‟ had four parts that consists of 19 closed

ended with 4 open ended items, while the teachers and principals

questionnaire had five parts that consists of 25 closed ended with 4 open

ended items. The questionnaires were adopted from different literatures that

were developed for similar purposes. It was reviewed with professionals from

school teachers, masters‟ students from Addis Ababa University, educational

expertise and finally commented by the divisor. Here the questionnaires were

written in English, and translated in to Amharic languages to include all the

respondents, to express their ideas by their own language. And the

questionnaires were pre-tested before the actual data was collected; it was

practiced in Balch Aba -Nefeso preparatory School. The questionnaires were

modified according to the result obtained of the pre-test.

Open-ended items were employing in order to give opportunity to express

their feelings, perception, problems and their attitude related to CCAs. Thus to

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be questions was used to elicit general information so as to supplement

information obtained form close ended questions.

Close –ended items were also developed to elicit their feeling about the

CCAs practice, promoting CCAs practice and major problems related with

CCAs. The close –ended items were constructed in five point liker type scale to

cover the whole range of possible response allowing respondents to choose the

answer that fit their opinions.


The interview permits in-depth of response, which is not possible through

any other means. Thus, the purpose of the interview was to collect more

information about the respondent point of views. So to cross check the

questionnaire responses, semi structure interviews were conducted with school

principals to elicit in-depth response about the issue of the study. Semi

structured interview items were selected because of the advantages of flexibility

in which new questions can be forwarded during the interview based on the

responses of the interviewee; four schools principals were involved in the


Observation checklist

The observation checklist used to collect the information related to facilities

like library, laboratory, school compound and materials in different rooms

which are important for club or non club CCAs while the other form was

employed to obtain the information related to the availability of materials for

organization sports, music and the pedagogical center the last form also

employed to check the type of CCAs available in the schools.

3.5. Pilot study

To improve the understandability of the questioner and interview the pilot

study is conducted in Balca Abanefeso preparatory school. Hence by

considering the proportion of sex 10 students from grade 12 and 6 teachers

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were selected for the pilot study. These were not included in the main study.

The questioners were distributed to all participants and appealing genuine

comment through briefing the purpose of piloting the instrument. To made

simple observation on how students were filled at different time in a class

room. Based on the comment, observation and checking the piloted

questioners the following modification were made on the first draft.

Item in matrix form that prepared for students in part two and for teacher

and principals respectively confused some participant on how to fill the

response. Hence instructional modification and brief description was added

on the direction for the main study.

Additionally in interview leading questions were piloted on Balcha aba Nefeso

School. One principal and one experienced teacher were participated. Hence

the comment was considered during the main study. Observation checklist also

tested in the same school.

3.6. Data Gathering procedure

With the intention of practice and challenges in implementing CCAs in

preparatory school of Addis Ababa Administration the following procedure were


First, the researcher develops questionnaires based on the existing literature

and duplicates it in a single copy on which the advisor comments. Then

refineries were made and piloted the questionnaires in limited number. After

the pilot test was conducted items that have low correlation with the rest of,

sub scale items were eliminate.

Second, instrument were develop and piloted the researcher was made contact

with school principals prior to the collection of data. Then the researcher

receives the number of all teachers, principals and students. Having the

framework of participant, the researcher were employed simple Random

sampling technique to select the sample of respondents finally; the researcher

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was administer and collect the questionnaires with the collaboration of school

principals by going to each sample of secondary and preparatory school.

3.7. Techniques of Data Analysis

The researcher was collecting a quantitative and qualitative data from

quaternary, respondents‟ interview and observation. The data collected through

closed ended questionnaires were tallied and tabulated. Than the data were

bringing order and meaning to all the information gathered and analyzed in

descriptive statistical computation. Among the various type of descriptive

statistics, frequency and percentage were made to analyze the findings of all

basic questions. For basic reason that are very important in identifying the

difference and similarity of respondents‟ judgment on variable the data that

collect through. The interpretation was making with the help of percentage.

So as to test whether there is any significant difference happens in the

response of students, teachers and principals. Open ended questionnaires,

interviews and observation were analyzed qualitatively while the close ended

questionnaires will analyzed quantitatively.

Finally, conclusion and recommendation had been drawn based on the


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Chapter Four

4. Presentation, Analysis and interpretation

This study was prepared to assess the existing practices and challenges related

to the implementation of CCAs, in preparatory schools. Hence, data collected

through questionnaires, interview and observation are presented and

interpreted in this chapter under the following main headings. Profiles of

respondents, existing practice of CCAs and major challenges that hinder the

implementation CCAs.

4.1. Profile of Respondents

Based on the questionnaires respondents self reflect present in table 3

Table 3 Distribution of student and teachers from selected schools in

Addis Ababa 2014

Variable Frequency Percent

Sex of teachers







Sex of principals








School principals






Years of service

Below 5 years

5 to 10 years

Above 10 years







Educational status of teachers










Educational status of principals










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Total number of selected students per grade

level, sex and age grade level of students

Grade 11

Grade 12





Sex of student







Age of students

16 and blow

Above 16





Majority of the teachers were male compared to the percentage of female

participants 100 (66.2% versus 51 (33.77%) from the total number of 151

teachers, 11 (7.28%) where in Administration and 140 (92.7%) of them are in

teaching. 24 (15.89%) of them are below 5 year of work experience, 62 (41.05

%) of the rest are above 10 years of work experience. The educational status of

teachers and principals is diploma, degree and masters, 1 (0.71%) of teachers

are in diploma level, 110(72.84%) of them have first degree and 40 (26.49%) is

in masters levels

Form the total of 355 students 270(76.05%) of the students in grade 11and the

rest 85 (23.94%) of the students in grade 12. From the total number of

students participated in the study 166 (46.76%) of students are male. The rest

or the majority 189(53.23) were females. The age of them were 14 (3.94%)

students were 16 and below and 341 (96.05%) of students were above 16 years

of age. Therefore the result obtained in the study related to these group

especially teachers and principals were more reflective of male, but more

female students were participated in the study. On the other said majority of

teachers and principals were below 10 service years and degree holders in

educational status.

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4.2. Status of existing practice of curricular Activities

In terms of awareness on the concept of CCAs, perception, participation type

and organizational nature of activities and training of teachers, the responses

obtained from different sources were presented her under.

4.2.1. Awareness on Co-Curricular Activities

Based on the questionnaires participants‟ awareness level on the concept of

CCAs was rate. Then Result are presented in table 4

Table 4 Awareness Level on co-curricular Activities


Response Categories

Very high High Average Low Very low Total

No No % No % No % No % No %

Student 71 20 90 25.3 169 47.6 14 3.9 11 3.09 355

Teachers 30 21.43 50 35.71 47 33.6 13 9.3 - - 140

Principals 6 54.5 3 27.27 2 18.18 - - - - 11

Total 107 21.14 143 28.2 218 43.08 27 5.3 11 2.17 506

Half of the respondents of the study 250 (49.34) had aware on the concept of

CCAs 107 (21.14%) very high and 143 (28.20%) high some or 218 (43.08%)

averagely aware on the concept of CCAs. While the rest 27 (5.3%) Low and 11

(2.17%) very low awareness level on CCAs.

The awareness level of principals and teachers was higher than the awareness

level of students. Majority of student had aware on the concept of CCAs

average. It is expected result because principal and teachers have more

exposure and experiences on the CCAs than students. Generally From this

finding most of the respondents from the total sample groups rated their

awareness. Level Positively. But in interview most of the respondents of each

groups unable to give example for CCAs other than Clubs.

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The present study consistent results unpublished MA Thesis of Mesaynh

Eshaty (2008) and Rahel Geberstadik (2012) majorities of principal and

teachers related their awareness level is the same with this study findings.

4.2.2. Perception on the Benefits of CCAs

Students, teachers and principals were indicating the level of agreement and

disagreement on the educational benefits of CCAs. The responses of the

respondents were demonstrates in table 5.

Table 5 perception on the Benefits of co-Curricular Activities

Respondents Response Categories

Groups Strong Agree Agree Disagree Strongly


uncertain Total

No % No % No % No % No % No

Student 118 33.23 183 51.51 39 10.9 13 3.66 2 0.56 355

Teachers 39 22.9 83 59.3 8 5.7 3 2.14 7 5 140

Principals 8 72.73 3 27.27 - - - - - - 11

Total 165 32.61 269 53.1 47 9.2 16 3.16 9 1.7 506

Regarding to the perception about benefit of CCAs, student, teachers and

principals agreed up on the educational benefits of CCAs. From the total of 506

respondents 165 (32.61%) strongly agree and 269 (53.1%) agree. However, 39

(10.9%), 13 (3.66%) and 2 (0.56%) of students disagree, strongly disagree and

uncertain responded to the educational benefit of CCAs. 8 (5.7%) disagree and

3 (2.14%) strongly disagree and 7 (5%) of teachers from their respective groups

showed disagreement and unable to decide their level of agreement or

disagreement as we seen in the above table majority of the respondent were

positively respond on the educational benefit of CCAs. On the interviewee also

the same response were gate from sample school one principal said that “there

is no doubt on the benefit and importance of CCAs not only for student for

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school can gain from the effective implementation of CCAs” the above idea

indicate that there is better feeling about the CCAs” this idea strength the

awareness level of the principal were in god position.

4.2.3. Participation in Co-curricular Activities

In the study teachers and students were asked to indicate their status of

participation in co-curricular activities. Table 6-10 presents the response of

each group with respect to variables. Participation Level in Co-curricular Activities

According to (2004), the teacher is the dynamic force of the school.

Hence, without a competency teacher, even the best of systems is bound to fail.

It is the teacher who directs and implements educational program. The future

of the school is dependent on the teachers‟ active involvement. So, teachers

were asked to indicate if they were registered or appointed in CCAs or not the

responses of the teachers and principals indicates in the next table.

Table 6 participation Level in co-curricular activity

Response Categories



Very high High Medium Low Very low Total

No % No % No % No % No % No

Teachers 5 3.6 22 15.7 48 34.3 36 25.7 29 20.7 140

Principals 3 27.27 2 18.18 2 18.18 4 36.36 - - 11

Total 8 5.29 24 22.13 50 33.11 40 26.40 29 19.2 151

Regarding to the participation level of the teacher on CCAs 5 (3.6%) very high

22 (15.7%) high, 48 (34.3%) medium, 36 (25.7%) Low and 29 (20.7%) very low.

Principals respond on their participation in Co-curricular activities 3 (27.27%)

very high, 2 (18.18%) high 2 (18.18%) medium and 4 (36.36%) low participation

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level in Co-Curricular activities. Majority of teachers and principals or

50(33.11%) their participation in co- Curricular activities were medium. Participation of Students in Co- curricular Activities

In the study students were asked to indicate their participation level and if they

were registered in CCAs or not. The following table indicates the response of

the students. Based on the variable sex and grade level

Table 7 Students, participation by sex and grade Level






Grade Level



Male Female 11 12

No % No % No % No %

Yes 15 4.2 21 5.9 36 30 8.4 6 1.69 36

No 151 42.5 168 47.3 319 240 67.6 79 22.2 319

Total 166 46.7 189 53.2 355 270 76 85 23.94 355

The results on participation status of students indicated that the proportion of

female participants in co-curricular activities were greater than male 21 (5.9%)

versus 15 (4.2%) .More participant in grade 11 of the students 30 (8.4%) and 6

(1.69%) grade 12 student were participant in CCAs. This implies the

participation level of the student decrease when the grade level increase.

Generally sex and grade level had direct relationship with participation rate.

Results reported by Buser (1990) were differ and the male student

participation showed statistically more enrollment in leadership role, service

organization etc than female but in this study female participation rate greater

than male.

The present study is also not constant results on the participation of male and

female but the result of this study is indicate the participation of female

student in positive manner.

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46 Time Spent in CCAs

Question was posed for those participants to assess how much time spends in

average for co-curricular activities per week. The following table demonstrates

the responses of each group.

Table 8 Time spent in Co-Curricular activities



Spent time per week


Below 1 hours One hour Two hours Three





No % No % No % No % No % (No)

Student 18 50.1 10 27.7 8 22.2 - - - - 36

Teachers 76 54.3 39 27.8 14 10.1 5 3.5 6 4.28 140

Principal - - - - 4 36.3 6 54.5 1 9.09 11

Total 94 50.2 49 26.2 26 13.9 11 5.8 7 3.7 187

As described in the table 8 the respondents reported most of the respondents

were spent their time less than 1 hour per week in CCAs 94 (50.2%) below 1

hour. This implies majority of student, teacher spent below 1 hour in CCAs

more participants were only registered as participant or as members of CCAs

but they are not involve effectively.

Similar finding were reported by Jha et al (2004). Lamm and Harder (2005)

showed that students involved in CCAs for at least 1 hour per week. Opportunities to Lead or a member of executive

committee of club or non-club CCAs

The Ethiopia ministry of education CCAs manual suggested and expected

students to participate as a Leader or committee in CCAs (MOE, 1997). In the

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questionnaire an item was include to explore the opportunity of the students to

lead club and non- club CCAs Table 9 demonstrates the response of student.

Table 9 opportunities to Lead or executive committee of club or non- club

of CCAs


Response Category


Yes No

No % No % (No)







As table shows, majority of students 24 (66.6%) reported that they did get a

chance to lead club and non club activities but during observation we will see

there were no room to lead co-curricular activities. Checklist and interviews

support the results of the questioner. According to the interview all clubs were

lead by teachers and the student were participated as supported committee of

clubs. Participation in Multiple CCAs

The countries policy and principles expected to participate students in CCAs

voluntarily or compulsorily to maximize educational benefit. Schools provide a

numbers of CCAs (Wikipedia, 2007) and (MOE, 1997). In this study students

were asked to indicate the numbers of CCAs they participate in. The responses

of the students demonstrated in table 10 here under

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Table 10 students Participation in Multiple CCAs Based on Sex



Number of CCAs



One Two Three Four and Above

No % No % No % No %

Male 8 53.3 4 26.66 1 6.6 2 13.33 15

Female 12 57.1 7 33.3 1 4.7 1 4.7 21

Total 20 55.5 11 30.5 2 5.5 3 8.3 36

As table 10 participation of male and female student in CCAs were ranging

from one to four and above. The results showed from the total male and female

20 (5%) in one, 11 (30.5%) in two, (5.5%) in three and 3 (8.3%) in four and

above participate in CCAs.

Majority, of Male and Female students registered in one club. Thus, 8(53.3), of

male and 12 (57.1%), of Female from the respondents in CCAs.

4.3. Types and status Existing Practices

The organization of the clubs like, girl, environmental protection and Anti Aids

in all Ethiopian schools. ESDP III (2005). The manual of CCAs also describes

different types of CCAs and provides valuable suggestion that helps to organize

the activities in the schools (ESDP III, 2005) and (MOE, 1997). In addition to

the above documents, letters of communication related to CCAs that found in

check list of explore types of existing practices. Therefore, the following are the

summary of the results that obtained from the data collected by checklist.

4.3.1. Types of Co-Curricular Activities

Totally a maximum of 20 types of clubs were organized in the preparatory

schools of the study area. These were: Red Cross, mini media, Ant, Aids, sport

clubs, Traffic club, Environmental protection, girls, civic and ethical, special

need Club, Library club, Question and answer competition club, Gender Club,

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Language Club, Guidance and counseling clubs, knowledge sharing club,

tomorrows teachers club, ICT club, theater and music club, creativity and

technology Club, etc. However, only 7 clubs were common in all sample

schools: Red-Cross, Anti-Aids, Environmental protection, sport, civic and

ethical, tomorrow‟s teachers and mini-media clubs were presented. The rest

were specific to some schools or merged with other clubs (see, Annex-4).

This implies clubs were organized based on the directory from higher education

and also based on the interest of the schools. (See Annex -4)

4.3.2. Clubs in the Benefits and in its activity in the Schools

To explore the clubs relatively better in its activities, and item was included in

the questionnaires; table 11 summarizes the opinions of target groups.

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Table 11 clubs in the benefits and activates in the Schools





Response category



Very high High Undecided Low Very low

No % No % No % No % No %



students 28 7.8 92 25.9 113 31.8 60 16.9 62 17.4 355

Teachers 21 15 28 20 38 27.1 40 28.5 13 9.2 140

Principal - - - - 6 54.5 3 27.2 2 18.1 11





students 43 12.1 70 19.7 103 29 65 18.3 74 20.8 355

Teachers 16 11.4 44 31.4 10 7.1 49 35 21 15 140

Principal 5 45.4 3 27.2 -- - 3 27.1 - - 11




students 45 12.6 62 17.4 157 44.2 35 9.8 56 15.7 355

Teachers 28 20 33 23.5 16 11.4 41 29.2 22 15.7 140

Principal 6 54.5 2 18.1 - - 1 9 2 18.1 11

Sport students 40 11.2 140 39.4 83 23.3 28 7.8 64 18 355

Teachers 36 25.7 48 34.2 14 10 19 13.5 23 16.4 140

Principal 2 18.1 4 36.3 - - 2 18.1 3 27.2 11
















Teachers 36 25.7 48 34.2 14 10 19 13.5 23 16.4 140

Principal 1 9 2 18.1 1 9 6 54.5 1 9 11



students 106 29.8 133 37.4 20 5.6 50 14 46 12.9 355

Teachers 39 27.8 61 43.5 13 9.2 13 9.2 14 10 140

Principal 6 54.5 2 18.1 1 9 1 9 1 9 11

Anti aids students 37 10.4 52 14.6 109 30.7 78 21.9 79 22.2 355

Teachers 32 22.8 32 22.8 31 22.1 29 20.7 16 11.4 140

Principal 2 18.1 3 27.2 1 9 2 18.1 3 27.1 11

Table 11 shows, majority of participants respondent that mini- media sport

environmental protection and civic and Ethics the four (4) relatively better

beneficiary clubs in the school.

However, students ranked civic and Ethical clubs at fourth place rather than

other clubs. Civic and Ethical club was the only subject related club that found

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in the study area and the subject is compulsorily. The opinion of the students

may be influenced by the regular classroom activity of the subject.

The result is expected because these activities relatively have better support

from NGOs (see Annex-4), the same finding were reported by Setotaw (1998).

Dejene Tefera (2006) and Mesaynhe Eshetu (2008).

On the other side, from observation on the file and from report Letters of the

schools, researcher found some sorts of non- club activities that practiced in

the sample schools even though the schools did not considered the practices as


These were

Parent day

Class monitor

Student and teacher one to five program

National Flag Day

Flag ceremony

Wearing uniform

Nation Nationality and people day etc.

Generally, during the observation the practices of non- club. CCAs were

practiced and included in report format but they were not considered as CCAs

through all sample schools.

4.3.3. Organizational Nature of Existed CCAs

According to the manual of CCAs 1997, to organize effective clubs, schools

have to consider at least people, organizational and material factors. Based on

the suggestions provide in the above mentioned and manual five items with five

reactor scale were prepared to evaluate the organizational motive of existing of

CCAs/ clubs. Table 12 present the opinions of teachers and principals.

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Table 12 teachers’ and principals opinion on organizing CCAs clubs













% % % % %

1 Teaching

load is not

taken in to


n when

teachers are

assigned as

club leaders















2 There is no



among the

















3 There is no

clear guiding

principle to

organize co-


activities in

the schools















4 The school

clubs are not
















5 The school

principals do

not give


attention for

the practices

of co-

















Majorities of the respondents agreed upon those five important considerations

were not properly handled, when CCA/clubs were organized. This implies there

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is a problem in organizing CCAs which might negatively affect the

implementation of CCAs.

In the base of this result, it was noticed from report documents of each sample

schools, clubs were not properly organized. Interview also indicates that CCAs

were organized unsystematically.

More over practical showed and the result of the questioner reflect there is no

co-operation among the organized clubs. Vertical communication also not

satisfactory and in some sample schools the communication was blacked.

During the visit the researcher observed that no guideline available in the

schools. Most of principals said there was no any available manual related to

CCAs in the school is one school principal said that “In my experience I have

never seen any guide lines related to CCAs for clubs but there is some guide

lines for non clubs that changed year to year like one to five program”

As response of the respondents about 33.6% teachers and 5% of principal

strongly agree and 37.9% of teachers and 31% principals agree the school

clubs where not practically in function 28% of teacher and 59% of principals

strongly disagree and disagree with this functionality of clubs. Generally most

respondent agree with the school clubs not functional, the observation also

shows that in name there is many school clubs but most of them have no plan,

practical work and reporting system.

Most of teachers agree with the school principals were not give appropriate

attention for the practices of co-curricular activists, but the school principals

not agree with the response of the teacher. Most of the principals said in the

interview “we try to support because the practice is one part of our work“the

researcher observed that there were no any feedback for practice of CCAs by

the school principal in those sample schools.

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4.3.4. Opinions on the current practices of CCAs

The participants were evaluated by asking the current implementation of CCAs,

table 13 demonstrates the felling of the participants.

Table- 13- opinions on the current practices of CCAs

Group of


Response Categories





Poor Very Poor Total


No % No % No % No % No %

Students 13 3.6 26 7.3 89 25 171 48.1 56 15.7 355

Teachers 5 3.6 22 15.7 48 34.3 36 25.7 29 20.7 140

Principals - - 2 18.18 5 45.4 3 22.2 1 9.09 11

Total 18 3.5 50 9.8 142 28.06 210 41.5 86 16.99 506

The majority of respondents rated below average 296 (58.4%) 210 (41.5%) poor

and 86 (16.99%) very poor, where as 68 (13.4%) of all respondents very good

and good or positively respond the reset respondents evaluated the current

practice in average 142 (28.06%).This finding is in line with the finding

reported by setotaw (1998) Ayele Eshete (2007). Vaidyas (2002: 12), as cited

by(Jha, et al: 2004: 11) also reported “In Asia Legally CCAs has attained 73 %

status at par with other subjects but in actual practice it goes down to 20%

which is in agreement with the present study.”

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4.3.5. Involvement level of student, teacher and allocation

of resources in co-curricular activities

Table – 14 Student, teacher, and principals’ response in the Involvement



Frequency Percent

Student Teacher Student Teacher

The perception

(evaluation) of

student and

teachers on



Very high 8 3 2.2 1.9

High 25 14 7.04 9.2

Satisfactory 27 46 7.6 30.4

Low 199 65 56 43

Very low 96 23 27 15.2

Total 355 151 100 100

The perception

(evaluation) of

student and

teacher on


participation on


Very high 71 4 20 2.6

High 9 32 2.5 21.1

Low 146 63 41.1 41.7

Very low 70 43 19.7 28.4

Undecided 123 9 34.6 5.9

Total 355 151 100 100


evaluation on

allocation of

resources for



Excellent - - - -

Very good - 15 - 9.9

Good - 45 - 29.8

Poor - 50 - 33.1

Very poor - 41 - 27.1

Total - 151 - 99.95

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4.3.6. Perception and Evaluation of student and teacher on

Student participation on CCAs

When students were evaluating the participation in CCAS, from student

response 199 (56%) low, 96 (27%) very low participation from the total, the rest

60 (16.9%) of students said, the participation of the student is satisfactory and


For the same question teachers respond 88 (55%) of teachers said the student

participation in CCAs were low and very low.

4.3.7. The perception or evaluation of student and teacher on

teacher participation on CCAs

From the total 355 students, 71 (20%) of students said teachers have very high

participation in school CCAs, 9 (2.5%) said high, 146 (41.1%) of students said

teachers have low participation 70 (19.7%) very low participation. The rest 123

(34.6%) of students undecided to evaluate the participation of the teachers in

CCAs. In the interview on principal said about the importance‟s of teachers

participation “teaches are facilitators and a role models for their student if

teachers are involved in CCAs/clubs students will participate in the activity”

from this respond the researcher understand that teacher participation were

important to encourage students to involve actively in CCAS/ clubs.

Among the participant teachers of the research 106 (70.1%) respond teachers

participation is low and very low. In line with respond the researcher asked

why the participation of teacher low and very low in the interview the principals

said teachers did not participate in school clubs/CCAs. Because the reason of

the teachers when asked the question why do not participate in CCAs teachers

said “life is difficult even for survival; there for I do not have time to participate

in CCAs.”

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4.3.7. Teachers evaluation on allocation of resources for

CCAs implementation

From total 151 number of teachers and principals majority of teachers said

allocation of resources is one of the problems for the implementation of CCAs.

15 (9.9%) very good, 45 (29.8%) good while 50 (33.1%) poor and 41 (27.1%)

very poor. Generally shortages of resources were seen highly.

4.3.8. Training of teachers on CCAs

To assess the training opportunity of teachers and principals, they were asked

to indicate if they were trained on CCAs or not. Additionally, further question

was included in the questionnaire to identify the focus of training topics. Table

15 demonstrates the respond of teachers and principals they were trained or

not on specific CCAs.

Table-15 Training opportunity on CCAs


Response categories

Yes No



No % No %

Teachers 38 27.14 102 72.86 140

Principals 5 45.45 6 54.54 11

Total 43 28.4 108 71.5 151

From the total of 151 teachers and principals, 108 (71.5%) responded that

teachers were no training at all, the rest 43 (28.4%) of them said that there was

training. Further question was posed for those replied positively (had training

on CCAs) to identify the type of training, hence for further question majority of

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teachers and principals reported that they were trained on awareness creation,

Hive Aids, environmental protection, CPD, and student and teacher one to five

only this not full to implement CCAs effectively in the schools.

The present study is agreed with these research findings. Research findings by

Jha et al (2004) and Rahal Geberastadik ,(2012) in that absence of specific

trading on CCAs negatively affected the implementation of CCAs.

4.4. Major factors negatively affect the implementation of CCAs

To identify the major factors that influences on the implementation of CCAs,

data were collected through close ended items that included in questionnaire.

The summary of response obtained through open ended question and data

collected through interview or checklist are also presented and discussed

under the following table.

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Table 16 Major factors negatively affect the implementation of CCAs




Student Teacher and




Frequency Percent Frequency Percent

Low awareness

Level of principles

Major 120 33.8 70 46.3 190

Not major 235 66.19 81 53.6 316

Total 355 100 151 100 506

Low awareness

Level of teachers

Major 162 45.6 54 35.7 216

Not major 193 54.3 97 64.2 290

Total 355 100 151 100 506

Low awareness

Level of students

Major 201 56.33 70 46.3 271

Not major 154 43.38 81 53.6 235

total 355 100 151 100 506

Low interest of


Major 200 56.33 105 69.5 305

Not major 155 43.66 46 30.4 201

Total 355 100 151 100 506

Low interest of


Major 233 65.6 67 44.37 300

Not major 122 34.36 84 55.62 206

Total 355 100 151 100 506

Low motivation

level of teachers

Major 174 49.01 83 54.9 257

Not major 181 50.9 68 45.03 249

Total 355 100 151 100 506

Constraints of


Major 135 38.02 78 51.65 213

Not major 220 61.97 73 48.3 293

Total 355 100 151 100 506

Lack of facilities in

the school

Major 156 43.94 74 49 230

Not major 199 56.05 77 50.9 276

Total 355 100 151 100 506

Students extra

work in the home

Major 110 30.98 36 23.8 146

Not major 245 69.01 115 76.15 360

Total 355 100 151 100 506



Major 155 43.66 63 41.7 218

Not major 200 56.33 88 58.2 288

Total 355 100 151 100 506

Teachers‟ work

load problem

Major 124 34.92 51 33.7 175

Not Major 231 65.07 100 66.2 331

Total 355 100 151 100 506

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4.4.1. Low awareness Level of student, teacher and Principals

As presented in the table above from the total 506 sample respondents 316

(62.4%) of students and teachers said low awareness level of principal not a

major factor that negatively affect the implementation of CCAs and 290 (57.3%)

the awareness level of teacher not affect the implementation of CCAs, while

from the total respondents of the study 271 (53.5%) were said low student

awareness level affect the implementation practice of co- curricular activity.

4.4.2. Low interest level of teacher and student

Result on factors that negatively affect the implementation of CCAs which

presented on table 16 indicates that majority 200 (56.33%) students and 105

(69.5%) of teachers reported low interest of teacher another important

hindering factor for the implementation of CCAs, low interest level of students

also reacted 233 (65.6%) student and 67 (44.37%) teacher reported as a major

factor for implementation of CCAs.

This finding is consistent with the earlier results reported by Rahal (2012) and

Dejene Tefera (2006) Rahal Gerestadike found that low interest level of

students and teachers was one factor that affects the implementation practice

of CCAs in preparatory schools while Dejene identified the same result as one

4.4.3. Low motivation level of teacher

As presented in table 16, 174 (49.01%) of students and 83 (54.9%) of teachers

showed low teachers motivation was one of the responsible factor that

negatively affect the practical implementation of CCAs. As study with similar

finding was reported by Rahal Gebrestadike (2012) in that no incentives were

the factor that affects the implementation of CCAs.

4.4.4. Constraints of Budget

From the total 506 respondents 135 (38.02%) of students and 78 (51.65%) of

teacher confirmed the Budget constraint affects the operation of CCAs.

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Similarly in interview almost all principals said that one of the main factors

that affecting the implementation of CCAs was the absence of budget for CCAs.

One principal said that “without any budget and material resources how cans

the implementation effective and efficient.” This indicates that constraints of

budget for CCAs might be one of the major factors that hinder the

implementation of CCAs.

4.4.5. Lack of facilities in the School

156 (43.94%) of students and 74 (49%) teaches said there was lack of facilities

in school and it brought the inactive participation in different CCAs. These put

as a one reason for low level of practical implementation of CCAs. One principal

side “students and teachers were not encouraging because school clubs not

well organized and lack of facility.”

To check the existed facilities for CCAs, researcher conducted practical

checking on the spot. It was observed that in all sample schools had foot ball

and volley ball, mini-media, laboratory, library, National flag and staff room.

But unable to use the facilities that are found in schools compound.

The practices of students wearing uniform and teachers using guan were

regularly observed during the visit. Almost similar results were obtained from

the interview.

4.4.6. Students extra work in the home

A numbers of students and teachers reported extra work in home was one

factor for the implementation of CCAs. 110 (30.98%) of students and 36

(23.8%) of teachers reported the above result.

The present finding were consist with the research finding Macober and Moore

(1999) in that they reported that children in families with low income

participated at lower rate than from higher income.

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4.4.7. Administrative Problems

Based on table 16 administrative problems were one part of major problem 155

(43.6%) students and 63 (41.7%) of teacher agree with this problem that

negatively affect the implementation practice of CCAs.

4.4.8. Teachers work load problem

From the study respondent 124 (34.9%) of student and 51 (33.7%) of teacher

reported teachers work load is one of the significant problem in the

implementation of CCAs.

Generally, the following were the summary of common responses obtained

through interview. This are;

Absence of accountability at school level

Consternates of budget and material

Absence of training

Low interest and motivation level of students and teachers to participate

and coordinate CCAs.

Low income of students and teachers

Absence of clear guide lines and principles at the schools for CCAs

Teachers and principals work load

The present study consistent results with earlier research finding by

Setotaw(1998),Mesaynh Eshatu (2008) and Rahal Geberstadik (2012).in those

the inadequacy of facilities and absence of equipments and supplies were

found to be some of the challenge of successful implementation of CCAs in the


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Chapter Five

5. Summary, conclusions and recommendations

This chapter presents the summary of the major findings, the conclusions

reached at and recommendations based on the major findings.

5.1. Summary

The main purpose of this study was to asses and analyzes the practice and

challenge on implementation practice of co-curricular activities in Addis Ababa

preparatory schools, i.e. Hidase lidata, Balcha Abanefeso, Kokeba Tshebaha,

Yekatit 12 and Menelik II preparatory schools. Hence to find out the current

status of CCAs implementation, descriptive survey methods was employed and

data were collected from students ,teachers and principals by using

instruments such as questionnaire ,semi-structured interviews and

observational checklists. Furthermore random sampling techniques were used

to select the various respondents. Accordingly, a total of 506 respondents were

participated in the survey and the data drown from different sources were

analyzed by using statistical tool such as percentages and frequency table.

To study the problem and to meet the objective, the study was guided by the

following basic questions:

1. How do the current status and practices of co-curricular activities look like

in preparatory schools?

2. Is the financial status (budget) of CCAs enough?

3. Is the training level of teachers involved in CCAs competitive?

4. What is the perception of students and teachers in CCAs?

5. What are the major factors and challenges affecting the implementation of

co-curricular activities in preparatory schools?

6. What are barriers that affect students and teachers to practice CCAs?

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Students, teachers and principals were found having awareness on the

concepts of clubs, but they had no clear awareness on the practices of non-

club CCAs. This is why undesirable activities in different time different non

club activities were come and observed like one to five, top 10 students

parliament etc.

Majority of the respondents had positive feeling about the educational benefits

of CCAs program.

It was found that participation of students in CCAs was significantly affected

by grade level and sex

Students and teachers also spent less than one hour per week in CCAs

There were 21 clubs and 10 main non clubs CCAs found in the school. Such as

Red Cross ,Anti Aids, environmental protection, sport, tomorrows teachers,

library, ICT and civic and ethical clubs were clubs commonly found in the

schools while parents day, class monitor question and answer competition,

nation nationality and people day national flag day, student and teacher one to

five were non club activities existed.

It was found that all the undergoing CCAs in the schools have plan but most of

them are inactive. Almost all teachers and students believed that CCAs are

important but most of clubs did not practicing, and they did not participating

actively by different reasons.

Teachers and students mentioned that there is no allocated budget for CCAs.

On the study in Nepal stated by Balkhu, Katmandu, (2004) getting fund from

donation organizations and collecting money by doing creative or local resource

mobilization solves in covering tasks that need budget. No regular budget

available for CCAs. Teachers who are the members of CCAs donate to manage

specific programs of CCAs.

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Teachers and students said there is high shortage of facility; one of the reasons

why they do not participate in school clubs is shortage of facilities in school

compound. They said shortage of materials in the school brought the inactive

participation in different clubs.

Generally the study depicted the following major problems that

encountered challenges the implementation practice of CCAs in preparatory

school. Accordingly, problem of budget, lack of teachers motivation, lack of

teachers and students „interest,, lack of material and facility, lack of training,

unsystematic organization of CCAs, lack and absences of commitment and

attention to support CCAs from the teachers or schools principals, extra work

of students in the home, teachers work load, absence of guiding principle for

CCAs and lack of effective management system.

5.2. Conclusions

To answer the status of the existing practices of CCAs and challenges related to

the implementation the research questions were designed. To seek answer for

the research questions the implementation of CCAs in preparatory schools the

following issues were studied: awareness on the concept of CCAs, attitudes on

benefits of CCAs, participation in CCAs, types, status of existed practice,

organization of thus activities and training of teachers and major challenges in

the implementation of CCAs were assisted and interpreted. Based on the

analysis and major findings of the study, the following conclusions are derived:

Majority of the students, teachers and principals were found having clear

concept on CCAs. The result revealed that the awareness level of the

participant were positive and promising.

Majority of students and teachers involved in the study perceived or agree

with the educational benefits of CCAs. However, there participation on existing

situation is not like what they expected to participate. It indicates that there is

a problem that hinders their participations.

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Lack of practical and potential participation of teachers and students‟

were high. There for it can be concluded that the success of CCAs

implementation practice could be inactive. Majority of teachers are not trained

in CCAs, therefore the practical implementation of CCAs not successful.

Inadequacy of the availability of budget, materials, guideline, club offices,

sport and recreation centers, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms existing

in the selected schools contributed to some degree of limitation to the success

of implementation process of CCAs program.

There were different CCAs in schools, they were found to be large in

number. But most clubs are inactive, from this result; one can conclude that

large number of students could not participate in the activities.

For CCAs plan is available at preparatory school level, and there is a plan

to give supportive supervision at schools. But it doesn‟t get priority as other

urgent tasks. From this one can conclude that the administrative part not give

attention for the CCAs.

5.3. Recommendations

On the basis of the above major findings and conclusion drawn the following

recommendations were forwarded for a concerned body, to improve the

implementation status of CCAs by alleviating the challenges.

The participation level of students and teachers were low besides low

interest and motivation level were found as one of the responsible factors for

low level of implementation of CCAs. There for to alleviate the situation the

following remedial measure could be help full:

To raise students and teachers interest and motivation

Giving opportunity for the teachers and students to participate in planning

by school principals.

Giving training at school or sub city level for the teachers and student

continually to develop there awareness.

Using reward or Giving incentive for their effort for active participants

Addis Ababa - [PDF Document] (67)


The available strategies and plans of CCAs strategic and annual plan,

gilding manuals and budget need attention by Addis Ababa education biro, to

practice it effectively. And at school level resource can be mobilized from

different sectors including from school environments to fill gaps. And also

teachers could be assigned to train on the basis of their interest and abilities in

facilitating CCAs at school level.

In order to enhance the execution and coordination of CCAs first and for

most its organizational structure should be made clear and strong monitoring,

evaluation, and feedback should be established for CCAs by Sub city and

school level. Unless the implementation and status could be difficult, for this

reason, CCAs needs to be organized as formal academic or curricular program.

Addis Ababa - [PDF Document] (68)



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Second Cycle Primary Schools of Gursum Woreda. Unpublished Master‟s

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Addis Ababa - [PDF Document] (73)


Annex -1



Questionnaire to be filled by students

General Information

The purpose of this questionnaire is to collect information on the practices and challenges in

implementation of co-curricular activities in your school. Hence you are kindly requested to give

genuine and clear responses that reflect your opinion for each question. Your responses will be

kept confidential and used only for academic purpose. Please do not mention your identity in any

page of this questionnaire.


Part one – Personal Information

1.1. Name of the school ;_____________________________

1.2. Your grade level; _______________________________

1.3. Sex ; male female

1.4. Age ; below16 16 and above

Part two

For the following questions, show your answers by putting “x” mark in the box.

2.1. Your awareness level about co-curricular activities

Very high High Average Low Very low

2.2. Would you think that the participation in co-curricular activities has high benefit for the students?

Strongly agree Agree uncertain Disagree Strongly Disagree

2.3. Do you have participation in any of the co-curricular activities in your school?

Yes No

(If your answer is “No” please don’t answer questions 2.4 to 2.6)

2.4. Have you any experiences as club leader or as a member of executive committee in co-curricular activities?

Yes No

Addis Ababa - [PDF Document] (74)


2.5. Please indicate the numbers of Co-curricular activities you are participating in

One Two Three Four and above

2.6. How many times you spend in co-curricular activities per week?

Below 1hour 1 hour 2 hours 3 hours above 3 hours

2.7. How do you evaluate the implementation of co-curricular activities in your school now?

Very good Good Average Poor Very poor

2.8. How do you rate the involvement level of students of your school in co-curricular activities?

Very high High Satisfactory Low Very Low

2.9. How do you rate the participation of teachers in co-curricular activities in your school?

Very high High Undecided Low Very low

2.10. What are the major factors that negatively affect the practical implementation of co-curricular activities in your

schools? More than one answer is possible.

A. Low awareness level of principals

B. Low awareness level of teachers

C. Low awareness level of students

D. Low interest of teachers

E. Low interest level of students

F. Low motivation level of teachers

G. Constraint of budget and materials

H. Lack of facilities in the school

I. Students extra work in home

J. Administrative problem

K. Teacher’s high work course load

If any other(please specify)-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------





Addis Ababa - [PDF Document] (75)


Part Three

Evaluate the practices of clubs in your school based on the services provided for different target groups in your

school context. Please, indicate your opinion using “X” mark in the box corresponding to each clubs.



Response Categories

Very high High Low Very low Undecided

3.1. Anti—AIDS

3.2. Red Cross

3.3. Environmental Protection

3.4. Civic and Ethical

3.5. Sport

3.6. Teacher’s of Tomorrow

3.7. Mini—media

3.8 Others(please list)

Part four

4.1. If you have extra comment on the implementation of co-curricular activities in your school, please specify ------









Addis Ababa - [PDF Document] (76)




Questionnaire to be filled by school principals and teachers

General Information

The purpose of this questionnaire is to collect information on the practices and challenges in implementing co-

curricular activities in your school. Hence you are kindly requested to give genuine and full responses for all

questions. Your responses will be kept confidential and used only for academic purpose. Please do not mention your

identity in any part of this questionnaire.


Part one

Personal information

1.1. Name of the school---------------------------------------------------------------------

1.2. Sex

Male female

1.3. Occupational status

School principal Teacher

1.4. years of service (in education sector).

Below 5 years 5 to 10 years above 10 years

1.5. Education status

Diploma Degree Masters

Part two

For the following questions show your answer by putting “x” mark in the box.

2.1. Your awareness level about co-curricular activities

Very high High Average Low Very low

Addis Ababa - [PDF Document] (77)


2.2. Would you believe that co-curricular activities in preparatory school have benefit for the students?

Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Uncertain

2.3. How much time you spend in average for co-curricular activities per week

Below one hou r One hour two hours three hour above three hours

2.4 How do you rate your participation Level in co-curricular activities?

Very high High Medium Low Very low

2.5. Did you take any training on Co-Curricular issues?

Yes No

2.6 If your answer for question 2.5 is yes, please indicate the topics in which the training





2.7. How do you evaluate the allocation of resources for the implementation of Co-Curricular activities in your


Excellent Very good Good poor Very poor

2.8. How do you rate the involvement Level of students in co-curricular activities?

Very high High satisfactory Low Very low

2.9. How do you rate the participation level of teachers in Co- Curricular activities in your school?

Very high high Low Very low Undecided

2.10. What are the major factors that negatively affect the implementation of Co-Curricular Activities?

in your school?.More than one answer is possible.

A. Low awareness Level of principals

B. Low awareness Level of teachers

C. Low awareness Level of students

D. Low interest of teachers

E. Low interest level of students

F. Low motivation Level of teachers

Addis Ababa - [PDF Document] (78)


G. Constraints of Budget

H. Lack of facilities in the school

I. Students extra-wok in the home

J. Administrative problems

K. Teachers’ Course Load problems

If any others -------------------------------------------------------


The following are statements that reflect the performance of school management in strengthening the

effective implementation of Co-curricular activities in your school. Please read each statement carefully and

indicate your response (agreement and disagreement Level) by using “X” mark in any of the boxes against

each statement.


Evaluate the practices of Clubs in your school by showing the benefits they gave to students, teachers, and

schools and for the Community at large. Please indicate your opinion by putting “x” mark in the given box.

No Clubs Response Categories

Very high High un decided Low Very Low

4.1 Red Cross

4.2 Environmental protection

4.3 Civic and Ethics

4.4 Sport

4.5 Teacher’s tomorrow

4.6 Mini –media

4.7 Anti-Aids

4.8 Others(please list)

No Items Strongly


Agree Disagree Strongly



3.1 Teaching Load is not taken into Consideration

when teachers are assigned as club leaders

3.2 There is no established Co-operation among the

organized Clubs

3.3 There is no Clear guiding principle to organize co-

curricular activities in the schools

3.4 The school Clubs are not functional

3.5 The school principals do not give appropriate

attention for the practices of co-curricular


Addis Ababa - [PDF Document] (79)



Write your Comments on the following question

5.1. If you have extra Comments on the practices and challenges in implementing Co-Curricular activities in

your School please describe it------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------






Thank you once again for spending time and completing this questionnaire.

Addis Ababa - [PDF Document] (80)



በአዲስ አበባ ዩኒቨርስቲ የስነ-ትምህርት እና ስነ-ባህሪ ጥናት የትምህርት እቅድና

አስተዳደር ትምህርት ክፍል

በተማሪዎች የሚሞላ መጠይቅ

አጠቃላይ መረጃ

የዚህ መጠይቅ አላማ በት/ቤት ያሇውን የተጓዳኝ ትምህርት አፈጻጸም ተግባርና እየገጠሙት ያለ ችግሮችን

ሇመሇየት የሚረዳ መረጃን መሰብሰብ ነው፡፡ በመሆኑም ሇቀረቡት ጥያቄዎች በሙለ ተገቢና የተሟላ ምላሽ

እንዲሰጡን እየጠየቅሁ፤ የሚሰጡን ምላሽም በሚስጢር የሚጠበቅና ሇትምህርት ስራ አገሇግሎት ብቻ

የሚውል ይሆናል፡፡እባኮን ማንነቶን የሚገልጽ ነገር በየትናውም የመጠይቅ ገጽ ላይ አያስፍሩ፡፡

ስሇትብብሮ እናመሰግናሇን

ክፍል አንድ፡-የግል መረጃ

1.1. የትምህርት ቤቱ ስም-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.2. የሚማሩበት የክፍል ደረጃ--------------------------------------------------------------------

1.3. ጾታ ወንድ ሴት

1.4. እድሜ ከ16ዓመት በታች ከ16ዓመት በላይ

ክፍል ሁሇት

ሇሚከተለት ጥያቄዎች መልሶን በተዘጋጀው ሳጥን ውስጥ የ”x” ምልክት በማድረግ ያመልክቱ

2.1. ስሇተጓዳኝ ትምህርት እንቅስቃሴ ያሎት ግንዛቤ ምን ያህል ነው?

በጣም ከፍተኛ ከፍተኛ መካከሇኛ ዝቅተኛ በጣም ዝቅተኛ

2.2. በተጓዳኝ ትምህርት አደረጃጀት(በክበባት) መሳተፍ ሇተማሪው ከፍተኛ ጠቀሜታ አሇው ብሇው ያስባለ?

በጣም እስማማሇው እስማማሇው እርግጠኛ አይደሇው አልስማማም በጣም


2.3 .በትምህርትቤታችሁ ባለት ክበባት (ተጓዳኝ አደራጀቶች)ውስጥ ተሳትፎ አሎት?

አሇኝ የሇኝም

Addis Ababa - [PDF Document] (81)


ሇጥያቄ 2.3 መልሶ የሇኝም ከሆነ እባኮን ከጥያቄ ተራ ቁጥር 2.4 እስከ 2.6 ያለትን ጥያቄዎች


2.4. በክበባት እንቅስቃሴ ውስጥ(በተጓዳኝ አደረጃጀት) መሪ ወይም አብይ ኮሚቴ ሆነው ሰረተው ያውቃለ?

አቃሇው አላውቅም

2.5. በአባልነት የሚሳተፉበትን ተጓዳኝ አደረጃጀት( የክበባት) ብዛት ያመልክ

አንድ ሁሇት ሶስት አራትና ከዚያ በላይ

2.6. በሳምንት ውስጥ ሇምን ያህል ሰዓት በክበባት ይሳተፋለ?

ከ1ሰዓት በታች 1 ሰዓት ከ2ሰዓት 3ሰዓት ከ3 ሰዓት


2.7. በአሁኑ ወቅት በትምህርትቤታችሁ ያሇውን የክበባት እንቅስቃሴ እንዴት ይገመግሙታል?

በጣም ጥሩ ጥሩ መካከሇኛ ደካማ በጣም ደካማ

2.8. በትምህረትቤታችሁ ያለ ተማሪዎች የክበባት ተሳትፎ ደረጃን እንዴት ይገልጹታል?

በጣም ከፍተኛ ከፍተኛ አጥጋቢ ዝቅተኛ በጣም ዝቅተኛ

2.9. በትምህርትቤታችሁ የመምህራንን የክበባት ተሳትፎ ደረጃ እነዴት ያዩታል?

በጣም ከፍተኛ ከፍተኛ መወሰን አሇችልም ዝቅተኛ በጣም


2.10. በትምህርት ቤት የተጓዳኝ ትምህርት አፈጻጸም ላይ አለታዊ ተጽህኖ የሚሆኑ ምክንያቶች ምን ምን

ናቸው ብሇው ያምናለ (ከአንድ በላይ መልስ መስጠት ይቻላል)

ሀ.የርዕሰ መምህራን የግንዛቤ እጥረት

ሇ.የመምህራን የግንዛቤ እጥረት

ሐ.የተማሪዎች የግንዛቤ እጥረት

መ.የመምህራን የፍላጎት ማነስ

ሠ.የተማሪዎች ፍላጎት ማነስ

ረ.የመምህራን የተነሳሽነት ችግር

Addis Ababa - [PDF Document] (82)


ሰ.የበጀት እጥረት

ሸ.የቁሳቁስ እጥረት

ቀ.በተማሪዎች ላይ በቤት ውስጥ ያሇ የስራ ጫና

በ.የአስተዳደር ችግር

ተ.የመምህራን የክፍሇጊዜ (የስራ) ጫና

ተጨማሪ ካሎት (እባኮን የተወሰነ ነገር ይበለ)-------------------------------------------------------------------------------




ክፍል ሶስት

ከትምህርትቤታችሁ ተጨባጭ ሁኔታ በመነሳትና ሇሚመሇከታቸው አካላት ከሚሰጡት ግልጋሎት አንጻር

ከዚህ በታች የተዘረዘሩትን ክበባት እንቅስቃሴን በመገምገም የራሶን ሀሳብ የ”x” ምልክት በመጠቀም በሳጥኑ

ውስጥ ያስፍሩ



የምላሽ ዘርፎች በጣም ከፍተኛ



በጣም ዝቅተኛ

መወሰን አልችልም

3.1 ፀረ-ኤድስ

3.2 ቀይ መስቀል 3.3 የአካባቢ ጥበቃ

3.4 ስነ-ዜጋና ስነ-ምግባር

3.5 ስፖርት

3.6 የነገው መምህር

3.7 ሚኒ ሚድያ

ክፍሇ አራት

4.1. በት/ቤታችሁ ባለ ተጓዳኝ አደረጃጀቶች( ክበባት) እንቅስቃሴ ዙረያ ተጨማሪ ሀሳብ ካሎ እባኮን በአጭሩ





Addis Ababa - [PDF Document] (83)



Observation checklist form

A. General description

Name of the school--------------------------------- total numbers of clubs-----------------------


No. Item yes no Remark

1. Planning for CCAS

-strategic plan

-Annual plan

2. Rule and regulation for club or non-club members

3. Guideline and principle

4. National flag and song

5. Management of poll for flag hoisting

6. Provision of uniform for student

7. Provision of guan for teacher

8. Provision of toilet and privacy for Male and Female student and


9. Provision of drinking water

10. Provision of dust bin or garbage

11. Office for clubs or non-clubs

12. Available room e.g-laboratory, library, pedagogy center teachers‟ staff


13. Materials in laboratory‟s ,pedagogy center ,library etc.

B. Sport and other equipments

No Sport and other equipments yes no remark

1. Athletics‟

-tape mater


2. Balls

-volley balls

-foot balls

-basket balls

-hand balls

3. Table tennis

4. Sport wears or Malaya

5. Tape recorder

6. Monttarbo specour (amplifier)

7. First aid kit

8. Musical instruments

9. Other accessories

Addis Ababa - [PDF Document] (84)



Existing scenario of co-curricular activities in the schools

Available activities


Remarks Balcha

Aba Nfso









A. Type of clubs





I cross media A A A A A

3.Anti-aids A A A A A

4.Sport A A A A A

5.Trafic I I A I A

6.Enviromental protraction A A A A A

7.girls I I A I A

8.civic and ethical A A A A A

9.special need I I I A I

10.library I I I I I

11.quetion and answer I I I I I

12.Gendar A I I I

13.language club I I I I I

14.Gidance and counseling I I I I I

15.theatr and music I I I I I

16.know your country I I I I I

17.knowlage sharing X X X X X

18.tomorros teachers A A A A A

19.ICT I I I I I

20.Scines and creativity I I I I I

21.other clubs I I I I I

B. Non-club activities






1.class monitor

2.parent day A A A A A

3.flag day A A A A A

4.Nation and Nationality day A A A A A 10 students network A A A A A

6. 1 to 5 student and teacher Network


7.Student council X X X X X

8.wearing uniform and Guan A A A A A

9.Ethical leader of the



10.Student pare lama A A A A A

NOTE: - Available A

-Not Available X

-Integrated clubs I

Addis Ababa - [PDF Document] (85)




1. What is your view about the organization of co-curricular program in school

in reference to its importance for the school teachers, and students?

2. Would you indicate how the implementation of co-curricular activities

supported, monitored and evaluated?

3. What are the promoting and hindering factors for the implementation of co-

curricular activities in the school?

4. Is there any interscholastic program at the school? Please, list and evaluate

the implementation?

5. What are the possible recommendations to improve the implementation of

co-curricular activities in the school?

6. Do you have any idea you want to add?

Addis Ababa - [PDF Document] (86)



This thesis my original work and not been presented in any other University

and that all sources of materials used for this thesis have been duly


Name Signature Date

Demes Regassa ---------------------- -------------------

Teshom Tola (PHD) ----------------------- -------------------

Advisors name Signature Date

Addis Ababa - [PDF Document] (2024)


What is the Addis Ababa declaration? ›

The Addis Ababa Action Agenda is the outcome document of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development and consists of a new global framework for financing sustainable development.

What did the Addis Ababa Agreement do? ›

The agreement ended the 17-year conflict between the Anya Nya and the Sudanese army and ushered in autonomy for the southern region, which would no longer be divided into the three provinces of Al-Istiwāʾiyyah (Equatoria), Baḥr al-Ghazāl, and Aʿālī al-Nīl (Upper Nile).

What is the Addis Ababa Action Agenda document? ›

The Addis Agenda is a global framework that seeks to align financing flows and policies with economic, social, and environmental priorities. Expanding on the previous Financing for Development outcomes, the document includes seven Action Areas: Domestic public resources.

What is the Addis Ababa Agreement 2013? ›

The two cities will promote collaboration, information exchange, and joint ventures between their government agencies and among their local businesses, chambers of commerce, and entrepreneurs with a special focus on the growth and development of business investment, trade, tourism and public-private partnerships.

What is special about Addis Ababa? ›

Called "the political capital of Africa" due to its historical, diplomatic, and political significance for the continent, Addis Ababa serves as the headquarters of major international organizations, such as the African Union and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.

What is the Treaty of Addis Ababa? ›

The Treaty of Addis Ababa, signed in October 1896, abrogated the Treaty of Wichale and reestablished peace. The Italian claim to a protectorate over all of Ethiopia was thereafter abandoned, and the Italian colony of Eritrea, finally delimited by a treaty of peace (September 1900), was…

Who created Addis Ababa? ›

The empress Taitu, wife of Emperor Menilek II (reigned 1889–1913), persuaded the emperor to build a house near the hot springs at the foot of the tableland and to grant land in the area to members of the nobility. The city was thus founded in 1887 and was named Addis Ababa (“New Flower”) by the empress.

What did Addis Ababa fall of? ›

In May 1991, the brutal Ethiopian dictator, Colonel Mengistu and his military regime were on the verge of collapse after years of civil war. The end came when a Tigrayan-led rebel movement advanced on the capital Addis Ababa and took power.

Who used to rule Ethiopia? ›

Lij Iyasu, Zewditu and Haile Selassie (1913–1936)

Her cousin, Ras Tafari Makonnen, was made regent and successor to the throne. Upon the death of Empress Zewditu in 1930, Ras Tafari Makonnen, adopting the throne name Haile Selassie, was crowned Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia.

What is the Addis Ababa Action Agenda 2030? ›

This ambitious agenda aims to align all financing flows and policies with the vision outlined in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Universal in nature, the AAAA charts a path to strengthen the means of implementation and reinforce the global partnership to achieve the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

What is the Addis Ababa principles and guidelines? ›

The Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for the Sustainable Use of Biodiversity provide a framework for assisting Governments, indigenous and local communities, resource managers, the private sector and other stakeholders, about how to ensure that their uses of biological diversity will not lead to its long-term ...

What is the Addis Ababa strategy? ›

Adopted in 2018, the Addis Ababa NMT Strategy sets out an ambitious plan for improving the city's walking and cycling facilities. The Strategy calls for the implementation of 600 km of new footpaths and 200 km of dedicated cycle facilities over 10 years.

What was the outcome of the Addis Ababa Agreement? ›

The agreement ended the 17-year conflict between the Anya Nya and the Sudanese army and ushered in autonomy for the southern region, which would no longer be divided into the three provinces of Al-Istiwāʾiyyah (Equatoria), Baḥr al-Ghazāl, and…

What is Addis Ababa Declaration? ›

Acknowledging the link between health, poverty alleviation, peace and security, gender mainstreaming, and the global commitment towards universal access to health care to facilitate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; 4.

What is the Addis Ababa Agreement 2015? ›

13-16 July 2015 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

The agreement marks a milestone in forging an enhanced global partnership to foster universal, inclusive economic prosperity and improve people's well-being while protecting the environment.

What is the importance of Addis Ababa Conference? ›

It was recognized as the first effort to locate and examine the problems of African education on a continental basis, to identify those problems, and to devise ways and means of dealing with them. Conceived as the most vital and most important technique in providing solutions to these problems was education.

What does Addis Ababa stand for? ›

The city was thus founded in 1887 and was named Addis Ababa (“New Flower”) by the empress.

What is the Addis Ababa Declaration on Population and Development? ›

The Declaration comprises a total of 88 priority measures (commitments) grouped under six pillars: Dignity and Equality; Health; Place and Mobility; Governance; Data and Statistics; Partnership and International Cooperation.

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